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Psychosynthesis is an approach to psychology that was developed by Italian psychiatrist, Roberto Assagioli. He compared psychosynthesis to the prevailing thinking of the day, contrasting psychosynthesis for example with existential psychologybut unlike the latter considered loneliness not to be “either ultimate or essential”.

Psychosynthesis departed from the empirical foundations of psychology in that it studied a person as a personality and a soul [4] assagioil Assagioli continued to insist that it was scientific.

He developed therapeutic methods beyond those found in psychoanalysis. Although the unconscious is an important part of his theory, Assagioli was careful to maintain a balance with rational, conscious therapeutical work. Assagioli was not the first to use the term “psychosynthesis”. The earliest was by Assaagioli Jackson Putnampsicosintessi used it as the name of his electroconvulsive therapy.

The term was also used by C. Oragewho were both far closer to Assagioli’s thinking assagiolu Putnam. Jung had written, comparing his goals to those of Sigmund Freud”If there is a ‘psychoanalysis’ there must also be a ‘psychosynthesis which creates future events according to the same laws’.

Orage, who was publisher of the influential The New Age journal, also made use of the term, which he hyphenated as psycho-synthesis. Orage formed an early psychology study group which included Maurice Nicoll who later studied with Carl Jung and concluded that what humanity needed was not psychoanalysis, but psycho-synthesis. The psycho-synthesis is thus achieved in analytic treatment without our intervention, automatically and inevitably.

Jung wrote to Sigmund Freud of “a very pleasant and perhaps valuable acquaintance, our first Italian, a Dr. Assagioli from the psychiatric clinic in Florence”. A beginning of my conception of psychosynthesis was contained in my doctoral thesis on Psychoanalysisin which I pointed out what I considered to be some of the limitations of Freud’s views.

In developing psychosynthesis, Assagioli agreed with Freud that healing childhood trauma and developing a healthy ego were necessary aims of psychotherapy, but held that human growth could not be limited to this alone. A student of philosophical and spiritual traditions of both East and West, Assagioli sought to address human growth as it proceeded beyond the norm of the well-functioning ego; he wished also to support the blossoming of human potential into what Abraham Maslow [12] later termed self-actualizationand further still, into the spiritual or transpersonal dimensions of human experience as well.

Assagioli envisioned an approach to the human being which could address both the process of personal growth—of personality integration and self-actualization—as well as transpersonal development—that dimension glimpsed for example in peak experiences Maslow of inspired creativity, spiritual insight, and unitive states of consciousness.

In addition, psychosynthesis recognizes the process of Self-realization, of contact and response with one’s deepest callings and directions in life, which can involve either or both personal and transpersonal development. Psychosynthesis is therefore one of the earliest forerunners of both humanistic psychology and transpersonal psychologyeven preceding Jung’s break with Freud by several years.

Assagioli’s conception has an affinity with existential-humanistic psychology and other approaches which attempt to understand the nature of the healthy personality, personal responsibility and choice, and the actualization of the personal self; similarly, his conception is related to the field of transpersonal psychology, with its focus on higher states of consciousness, spirituality, and human experiencing beyond the individual self. Accordingly, Assagioli served on the board of editors for both the Journal of Humanistic Psychology and the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology.

Assagioli presents the two major theoretical models in his seminal book, Psychosynthesis[13] models that have remained fundamental to psychosynthesis theory and practice through the years. These two models are 1 a diagram and description of the human person, and the other 2 a stage theory of the process of psychosynthesis see below. In Psychosomatic Medicine and Bio-psychosynthesisAssagioli states that the principal aims and tasks of psychosynthesis are:.

In his major book, Psychosynthesis: A Collection of Basic WritingsAssagioli writes of three aims of psychosynthesis:. Let us examine whether and how it is possible to solve this central problem of human life, to heal this fundamental infirmity of man.

Let us see how he may free himself from this enslavement and achieve an harmonious inner integration, true Self-realization, and right relationships with others. For Assagioli, ‘the lower unconscious, which contains one’s personal psychological past in the form of repressed complexes, long-forgotten memories and dreams and imaginations’, [15] stood at the base of the diagram of the mind. The lower unconscious is that realm of the person to which is relegated the experiences of shame, fear, pain, despair, and rage associated with primal wounding suffered in life.


One way to think of the lower unconscious is that it is a particular bandwidth of one’s experiential range that has been broken away from consciousness.

It comprises that range of experience related to the threat of personal annihilation, of destruction of self, of nonbeing, and more generally, of the painful side of the human condition. As long as this range of experience remains unconscious, the person will have a limited ability to be empathic with self or others in the more painful aspects of human life.

At the same time, ‘the lower unconscious merely represents the most primitive part of ourselves It is not badit is just earlier ‘.

The middle unconscious is a sector of the person whose contents, although unconscious, nevertheless support normal conscious functioning in an ongoing way thus it is illustrated as most immediate to “I”.

It is the capacity to form patterns of skills, behaviors, feelings, attitudes, and abilities that can function without conscious attention, thereby forming the infrastructure of one’s conscious life. The function of the middle unconscious can be assatioli in all spheres of human development, from learning to walk and talk, to acquiring languages, to mastering a trade or profession, to developing social roles.

Anticipating today’s neuroscience, Assagioli even referred to “developing new neuromuscular patterns”. For Assagioli, ‘Human healing and growth that involves work with either the middle or the lower unconscious is known as personal psychosynthesis ‘. Assagioli termed ‘the sphere of aesthetic experience, creative inspiration, and higher states of consciousness As with the lower unconscious, this area is by definition not available to consciousness, so its existence is inferred from moments in which contents from that level affect consciousness.

Contact with the psicosingesis unconscious can be seen in those moments, termed peak experiences by Maslow, which are often difficult to put into words, experiences in which one senses deeper meaning in life, a profound serenity and peace, a universality within the particulars of existence, or perhaps a unity between oneself and the cosmos. This level of the unconscious represents an area of assavioli personality that contains the “heights” overarching the “depths” of the lower unconscious.

As long as this range of experience remains unconscious — in what Desoille termed ‘”repression of the sublime”‘ [21] — the person will have a limited ability to be empathic with self or aesagioli in the more sublime aspects of human life. The higher unconscious psicositnesis represents ‘an autonomous realm, from psifosintesis we receive our higher intuitions and inspirations — altruistic psiocsintesis and will, humanitarian action, artistic and scientific inspiration, philosophic and spiritual insight, and the drive towards purpose and meaning in life’.

Subpersonalities based in the personal unconscious form a central strand in psychosynthesis thinking. A five-fold process of recognition, acceptance, co-ordination, integration, and synthesis ‘leads to the discovery of the Transpersonal Self, and the realization that that is the final truth of the person, not the subpersonalities’. Some subpersonalities may be seen ‘as psychological contents striving to emulate an archetype Psychosynthesis suggests that “we can experience the will as having four stages.


The first stage could be described as ‘having no will ‘ “, [29] and might perhaps be linked with the hegemony of the lower unconscious. We might still feel that we cannot actually do it, but we know The “I” is placed at the center of the field of awareness and will in order to indicate that “I” is the one who has consciousness assagiolj will.

It is “I” who is aware of the psyche-soma contents as they pass in and out of awareness; assqgioli contents come and go, while “I” may remain present to each experience as it arises. But “I” is dynamic as well as receptive: Since “I” is distinct from any and all contents and structures of experience, “I” can be thought of as not a “self” at all but as “noself”.

That is, “I” assagioki never the object of experience.

Psicosintesis: Ser Transpersonal : El Nacimiento de Nuestro Ser Real

This “noself” view of “I” can be seen in Assagioli’s discussion of “I” as a reflection of Self: It is, in other words, not a new and different light but a projection of its luminous source”. Pervading all the areas mapped by the oval diagram, distinct but not separate from all of them, is Self which has also been called Higher Self or Transpersonal Self.

The concept of Self points towards a source of wisdom and guidance within the person, a source which can operate quite beyond the control of the conscious personality.

Since Self pervades all levels, an ongoing lived relationship with Self—Self-realization—may lead anywhere on the diagram as one’s direction unfolds this is one reason for not illustrating Self at the top of the diagram, a representation that tends to give the impression that Psicosintesix leads only into the higher unconscious.

Relating to Self may lead for example to engagement with addictions and compulsions, to the heights of creative and religious experience, to the mysteries of unitive experience, to issues assagjoli meaning and mortality, to grappling with early childhood wounding, to discerning a sense of purpose and meaning in life.


The relationship of “I” and Self is paradoxical. Assagioli was clear that “I” and Self were from one point of view, one. He wrote, “There are not really two selves, two independent and separate entities. The Self psicosintesus one”. But Assagioli also understood that there could be a meaningful relationship between the person and Self as well:.

Accounts of religious experiences often speak of a “call” from God, or a “pull” from some Higher Power; this sometimes starts a “dialogue” between the man [or woman] and this “higher Source” Assagioli did not of course limit this relationship and dialogue to those dramatic experiences of “call” seen in the lives of great men and women throughout history.

Rather, the potential for a conscious relationship with Self exists for every person at all times and may be assumed to be implicit in every moment of every day and in every phase of life, even when one does not recognize this.

Whether within one’s private inner world of feelings, thoughts, and dreams, or within one’s relationships with other people and the natural world, a meaningful ongoing relationship with Self may be lived. Writing about the model of the person presented above, Assagioli states that it is a “structural, static, almost ‘anatomical’ representation of our inner constitution, while it leaves out its dynamic aspect, which is the most important and essential one”.

This scheme can be called the “stages of psychosynthesis”, and is presented here. It is important to note that although the linear progression of the following stages does make logical sense, these stages may not in fact be experienced in this sequence; they are not a ladder up which one climbs, but aspects of a single process.

Further, one never outgrows these stages; any stage can be present at any moment throughout the process of Psychosynthesis, Assaglioli acknowledging assayioli traits belonging to preceding psychological ages’ and the perennial possibility of assagipli to primitive stages’. Psychosynthesis was regarded by Assagioli as more of an orientation and a general approach to the whole human being, and as existing apart from any of its particular concrete applications.

This approach allows for a wide variety of techniques and methods to assagooli used within the psychosynthesis context. Psychosynthesis offers an overall view which can help orient oneself within the vast array of different modalities available today, and be applied either for therapy or for self-actualization.

Recently, two psychosynthesis techniques were shown to help student sojourners in their acculturation process. First, the self-identification exercise eased anxiety, an aspect of culture shock.

Psychosynthesis – Wikipedia

psjcosintesis Secondly, the subpersonality model aided students in their ability to integrate a new social identity. One broad classification of the techniques used involves the following headings: To help identify blocks and enable the exploration of the unconscious’.

Psychosynthesis allows practitioners the recognition and validation of an extensive range of human experience: None of these important spheres of human existence need be reduced to the other, and each can find its right place in the whole. This means that no matter what type of experience is engaged, and no matter what phase of growth is negotiated, the complexity and uniqueness of the person may be respected—a fundamental principle in any application of psychosynthesis.

In the December issue of Psychology TodayAssagioli was interviewed by Sam Keen and was asked to comment on psicosihtesis limits of psychosynthesis. It is too extensive, too comprehensive. Its weakness is that it accepts too much. It sees too many sides at the same time and that is a drawback. Psychosynthesis “has always been on the fringes of the ‘official’ therapy world” and it “is only recently that the concepts and methods of psychoanalysis and group analysis have been introduced into the training and practice of psychosynthesis psychotherapy”.

As a result, the movement has been at times exposed to the dangers of fossilisation and cultismso that on occasion, having “started out reflecting the high-minded spiritual philosophy of its founder, [it] became more and more authoritarian, more and more strident in its conviction that psychosynthesis was the One Truth”. A more technical danger is that premature concern with the transpersonal may hamper dealing with personal psychosynthesis: Stephen Potter ‘s “Lifemanship Psycho-Synthesis Clinic”, where you may “find the psycho-synthesist lying relaxed on the couch while the patient will be encouraged psicosinteais walk up and down” [50] would seem a genuine case of ” parallel evolution “, since its clear targets, as “the natural antagonists From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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