By Joseph M. Grieco; Abstract: The newest liberal institutionalism asserts that, although it accepts a major realist proposition that international. Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation: A Realist Critique of the Newest Liberal Institutionalism Author(s): Joseph M. Grieco Source: International Organization. Grieco claims that liberalism has attributed to realism a concept of the state that is not present in realist theory. Liberal literature takes as its unit.
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We use information anarcgy and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. Grieco Joseph Realismhas dominatedinternational relationstheoryat least sinceWorld anarchyfosterscompetition War Realisttheoryalso znarchy tutionsare unableto mitigate anarchy’sconstrainingeffectson inter-state cooperation.
Realism,then,presentsa pessimistic analysisoftheprospects forinternationalcooperationand of the capabilitiesof international insti- tutions. Major realist works include: Carr, The TwentyYears Crisis, Harper Torchbooks, ; Hans J.
The Strugglefor Power and Peace, 5th ed. Knopf, ; Raymond Aron, InternationalRelations: Doubleday, ; and War,trans. Waltz, Man, the State, and War: A TheoreticalAnalysis New York: Addison- Wesley, ; Robert Gilpin, U. Power and the MultinationalCorporation: Thisessaydoes not distinguishbetweenrealismand “neorealism,”because on crucialissues-the meaningof anarchy,itseffects international on states,andtheproblemofcooperation-modem realists like Waltzand Gilpinare verymuchin accordwithclassicalrealistslike Carr,Aron,and Morgenthau.
ColumbiaUniversity Press, ,pp.
RichardRosecranceprovidedtheinsight pessimistic thatrealismpresentsan essentially viewofthehumancondition: Thispessimism in realisttheoryis mostclearlyevidentinHansJ. InternationalOrganization42, 3, Summer ? Priorto the currentdecade, it appearedin threesuccessive presentations-functionalist theoryinthesandearlys, integration neofunctionalist theoryin the sand s,and in- regionalintegration terdependence theoryin the ajd.
Mostsignificantly, theyarguedthatinternational institutions can helpstates cooperate.
Thus,comparedto realism,theseearlierversionsof liberalin- stitutionalismoffereda morehopefulprognosis forinternational cooperation anda moreoptimistic assessmentofthecapacityofinstitutions tohelpstates lmits.
Internationaltensionsand conflictsduringthe sundermined liberal institutionalismand reconfirmedrealisminlargemeasure.
Yet, thatdifficult grieoc did notwitnessa collapseof theinternational system,and, in the lightof continuing cooperation,a new liberal modestlevels of inter-state challengeto realismcame forwardduringtheearlys. However,thecore liberalarguments-that realismoverempha- and underestimates sizes conflict thecapacitiesofinternational institutions to promotecooperation-remain firmly intact.
The new liberalinstitution- alistsbasicallyarguethateven ifthe realistsare correctin believingthat anarchyconstrains thewillingnessofstatestocooperate,statesnevertheless can worktogether and can do so especiallywiththeassistanceof interna- tionalinstitutions.
This pointis crucialforstudentsof internationalrelations. QuadranglePress, ; see also ErnstB. Functionalism and International Organization Calif.: WorldPolitics in Transition Boston: Basic Books, ; Axelrodand Robert0. Strategies and Institutions,” Coiperation October ,pp. This content downloaded from Thisessay’s principal argument is that,infact,neoliberalinstitutionalism misconstrues the realistanalysisof international anarchyand therefore it misunderstands therealistanalysisoftheimpactofanarchyon theprefer- ences and actionsof states.
Indeed,thenewliberalinstitutionalism failsto addressa majorconstraint on thewillingness of statesto cooperatewhich is generated byinternational anarchyand whichis identified byrealism. As a result,thenewtheory’soptimism aboutinternational cooperation is likely to be provenwrong.
Neoliberalism’s claimsaboutcooperation arebasedonitsbeliefthatstates are atomisticactors. It arguesthatstatesseek to maximizetheirindividual absolutegainsandareindifferent to thegainsachievedbyothers.
Anarchy and the limits of cooperation: a realist critique of the newest liberal institutionalism
Cheating, thenew theorysuggests,is thegreatestimpediment to cooperation among rationally egoisticstates,butinternational thenewtheoryalso institutions, suggests,can helpstatesovercomethisbarriertojointaction.
How- ever,realistsfindthatstatesarepositional,notatomistic, in character, and therefore realistsarguethat,in additionto concernsaboutcheating,states in cooperativearrangements also worrythattheirpartners mightgainmore anachy.
For realists,a statewillfocusbothon its absoluteand relativegainsfromcooperation,and a statethatis satisfied witha partner’scompliancein a jointarrangement mightnevertheless exit fromit because thepartneris achievingrelatively greatergains. Realism, then,findsthatthereare at leasttwomajorbarriersto international coop- eration: Neoliberalinstitutionalism paysattention exclusively to theformer, and is unableto identify, analyze,or accountforthelatter.
Realism’sidentification of the relativegainsproblemforcooperationis based on itsinsight thatstatesin anarchyfearfortheirsurvivalas indepen- dentactors. Accordingto realists,statesworrythattoday’sfriendmaybe tomorrow’senemyin war, and fearthatachievements ofjoint gainsthat advantagea friend in thepresentmight producea moredangerous potential foein thefuture. As a result,statesmustgiveseriousattention to thegains of partners. Neoliberalsfailto considerthethreatof war arisingfromin- ternational anarchy,and thisallows themto ignorethe matterof relative gainsand to assumethatstatesonlydesireabsolutegains.
Yet, indoingso, theyfailto identify a majorsourceof stateinhibitions aboutinternational cooperation.
In sum,I suggestthatrealism,its emphasison conflict and competition notwithstanding, offersa morecompleteunderstanding of theproblemof international cooperationthandoes its latestliberalchallenger. If thatis true,thenrealismis stillthemostpowerful theoryofinternational politics. Morgenthau,Politics Among Nations, p. Waltz, Man, State, and War, pp. Praeger,pp. Waltz, Theoryof InternationalPolitics, pp. One of these,tradeliberalism, by RichardCobdenand JohnBright, articulated finds thatinternational commerce greater facilitates forCobden,see Arnold cooperation: Yale University Press, ,pp.
A secondvariant, democratic structural positedbyImmanuel liberalism, KantandWoodrowWilson,findsthatdemocracies based on nationalself-determinationare conduciveto greaterinternational cooperation. For Wilson,see Wolfersand Martin,eds. Finally,a liberaltransactions interactions thatprivateinternational promote international see KarlDeutschet al. Citingan unpublished studyby Keohane,Nyerecently refers twovariants tothefirst as commercial anddemocratic liberalism, respectively, and suggeststhatthethirdmightbe termedsociologicalliberalism.
In a wayquitedifferent fromliberalinstitutionalist worldsystems theories, analysisalso challengesrealism’sfocuson states.
ANARCHY AND THE LIMITS OF COOPERATION « A blog on the LSE Masters of Public Administration
adn It suggeststhattheyare notultimate causes of world eventsbutinsteadare themselves resultantsof thedevelopment of a singleworldcapitalist economy. Internationally,nuclearweaponsandmobilizednational populations wererendering warprohibitively costly.
A substantial thatis notbased on liberalism neverthelesssharesthe abouttheunityand rationality latter’sskepticism of states. It findsthatsubsystemic forces, andbureaucratic suchas organizational politics,smallgroupdynamics, crisisdecision-making, and individualpsychology,all undermine statecoherenceand rationality.
Allison, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis Boston: Little, Brown, ;Ole R. George, Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A PersonalityStudy New York: See Mitrany, WorkingPeace System,pp. Mitrany, Peace System, Working pp. For functionalisttheory, specialized agencieslikethe Or Organization could promote cooperation because they performed valuable tasks without frontally challenging state sovereignty.
Statesremainedau- tonomous in setting foreignpolicy goals; they retainedtheloyaltyof gov- ernment activein “transgovernmental officials networks”;and theyrecast thetermsoftheirrelationships withsuchseemingly powerful transnational actorsas high-technology multinational corporations.
Scholarslinkedthese differencesin performance to divergences, and not convergence, in their domesticpolitical-economic structures. Neofunctionalists that,forWestEuropeanstates,”theargument is no longer overthemeansforincreasing overthesliceofthepietogo toeach;itis increasingly theoverall size ofthepastry.
Gireco Working also Mitrany, Peace System,pp. Haas, “The New Europe,”p.
Krasner, Defending the National Interest: Raw Materials Investments N. IndustrialPolicy in Europe Ithaca, N. CornellUniversity toInternational This content downloaded from On thecontinuing offorceinthenuclearage,see Alexander utility L. Theoryand Practice New York: BrookingsInstitution, ; Ste- phen S.
Kaplan, Diplomacy of Power: An American View Madison: North-South withininternational struggles are discussed institutions in StephenD. On theproblemofEuropeanintegration, see DonaldJ. Trendstowardsa “new protectionism” supportedrealistargumentsthatthe erosionof America’shegemonic positionwouldproducea less openinternational economy. This set the stage fora renewed,albeittruncated, liberalchallengeto realismin the s. The new liberal institutionalism In contrastto earlierpresentations of liberalinstitutionalism, the newest liberalismacceptsrealistarguments thatstatesarethemajoractorsinworld affairsand are unitary-rationalagents.
It also claimsto accept realism’s emphasison anarchyto explainstatemotivesand actions. RobertAxelrod, forexample,seeks to addressthisquestion: Lieber, The Oil Decade: